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Which countries are first-to-use and which countries are first-to-file for trade mark rights?

Updated: May 2

The “first-to-file” countries grant rights to the person who first files a trade mark application over a third party who made prior use of the trade mark.

The “first-to-use” countries grant rights to the person who first uses a trade mark in the course of trade over a third party who later registers that mark.

The first-to-use countries are: Aruba, Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, Fiji, Hong Kong, Iceland, India, Ireland, Israel, Jersey, Kenya, Lebanon, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Singapore, South Africa, Swaziland, Trinidad & Tobago, United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe.

The first-to-file countries are: Algeria, Anguilla, Argentina, Austria, Belarus, Belize, Benelux, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Curacao, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, European Union, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Iran, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Taiwan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam and Zambia.

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